Panthera tigris






Extinction risk

Global IUCN statusEN
National IUCN statusCR


Head to body length

Head to Body: Male 2900 cm; Female 2500 cm

Body weight (kg)

Body weight: Male-220 kg; Females-140 kg


Listed as CR C1+2a(i), D because the number of mature individuals is less than 50, and population size and AOO continue to decline due to threats such as poaching and trade, habitat fragmentation, prey depletion and weak of law enforcement. There are only two subpopulations, one in the Northern and the other in the Southern landscape, each likely holding less than 50 mature individuals.


Wild population



Myanmar population

< 30

Global population

2,154 - 3,159

Historically, tigers were quite abundant in Myanmar, and were actually considered a pest species, and thus killed by the thousands. Now, there are only few tigers remaining (<30 mature individuals) in very specific areas in Myanmar. The population trend is likely to continue to decline due to the presence of threats from habitat loss and poaching. Tiger population (>150 individuals) was estimated based on National Tiger Survey (1999-2002). Again, based on the current tiger survey (2014-2018), at least 22 individuals were detected, from which not more than 50 mature individuals could be inferred since most of the camera traps were deployed in the locations of the most likely presence.

Habitat ecology

In Myanmar, camera trap surveys have confirmed the presence of breeding tigers in several areas in the Tanintharyi region, from the proposed Tanintharyi National Park in the north to the Lenya Reserve Forest and its extension in the south. Moreover, tigers have been confirmed in northern Kachin state and northern Sagaing region which retains extensive areas of lowland evergreen, semi-evergreen, and mixed deciduous forests.

Threats to survival

Threats to survival

In Myanmar, poaching and trade, depletion of prey species and habitat fragmentation are threatening the species. Major threats are agriculture (livestock farming & grazing), commercial and industrial areas, biological resource use, mining & quarrying, human intrusions and disturbance, natural system modifications like damming and road construction.

Instruction: The visualization shows threats that are impacting each species. According to IUCN, direct threats are the proximate human activities or processes that have impacted, are impacting, or may impact the the status of the taxon being assessed. Click of the highlighted icons to see details each threat category.

Use and trade

Most demand originates from China and Vietnam. Tiger parts and derivatives are among the most coveted, making this the most immediate and extreme threat to tiger survival.

Conservation Actions


Research undertaken

Many of the areas of tiger presence happen to be in areas of contested authority which makes law enforcement difficult. The same goes for research, hence some areas of tiger presence have not been surveyed in the recent years, such as Hukaung Valley, and some areas in Tanintharyi. Research in other areas however are on-going, and law enforcement, both on-site and along the trade routes are needed to be strengthened. Camera trapping and analysis, population monitoring, community engagement, law enforcement with SMART patrolling, established National Tiger Action Plan, site conservation plan, community- based patrolling and awareness raising, community -led natural resource management were done for tiger conservation.

Research needed

Site/ area protection, resource & habitat protection, site/ area management plan, habitat & natural process restoration, species recovery, education & awareness, policy development (national level), livelihood, economic & other incentives, linked enterprises & livelihood alternative, connectivity analysis across different habitat patches; standardization of monitoring methodology; monitoring of habitat and forest loss; poaching and illegal activity monitoring are still need to do more.

Assessed by

Than Zaw,Hla Naing,Myint Thein,Myo Min Tun,Su Su,Margaret Nyein Nyein Myint,Thida Oo,Paing Soe,Min Hein Htike,Theint Thanda Bo,Okkar Myo

Reviewed by

James Tallant,Monica Böhm



National Redlist of Threatened Species in Myanmar

The Myanmar National Red List of threatened species contributes to the GEF funded “Strengthening Sustainability of Protected Area Management in Myanmar” project. To support the National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan (2015-2020), Target 12 for commitment to prevent the extinction of known threatened species and improve their conservation status, the National Red List of some selected taxa has been produced. This report summarizes the assessment process and its results with detailed descriptions for some selected threatened species in Myanmar.